So what is the Join Order?
The join order is the order in which the tables are joined together in a multi-table SQL statement. Ideally, a plan should start with the join that eliminates the most data to minimize the amount of data carried into the subsequent joins.
How is the Join Order Determined?
The join order is determined based on cost, which is strongly influenced by the cardinality estimates and available access paths. However, the Optimizer will also always adhere to some basic rules:
- The Optimizer will always select a join that will produce at most 1 row as the initial join in the plan. For example, a join between two row sources that only have 1 row each. Like a primary key lookup or an index unique scan.
- If a SQL statement uses an outer join, then the optimizer must obey the join order specified by the outer join. That is to say; the row preserving table must come after the other table in the predicate to ensure all of the additional rows that don’t satisfy the join condition can be added to the result set correctly. For example, with the Oracle syntax for outer joins, the table with the outer join operator must come after the other table in the predicate. Thus, in this example, the cites table must come before the countries table.
WHERE cities.country_id = countries.id(+);
- For SQL statements that reference a database view, the Optimizer will attempt to do view merging, where the definition of the view is inserted into the rest of the SQL statement, and the entire expanded statement is optimized as a whole. However, there are a few cases where view merging isn’t possible. In these cases, the optimizer will join all of the tables in the view together before the resulting data set is joined to the tables outside the view.
- When a subquery has been converted into an anti-join (NOT IN subquery) or semi-join (EXISTS subquery), the tables from the subquery must come after those tables in the outer query block to which they were connected or correlated. However, hash anti-joins and semi-joins can override this ordering condition under certain circumstances.
How to determine the Join Order in an execution plan
You can take several approaches to determine the Join Order in a plan, from looking at the indentation of the tables in the operation column to a depth-first search. To clearly explain how to identify the Join Order in an execution plan, I’ve created a short video demonstrating several approaches using real-world examples.